Kappa-splints application for the treatment of pathological dental hard tissues abrasion in combination with dentition defects and dentition deformations

Svitlana Petrishin, Z Ozhohan

Abstract


Research objective: to develop and implement a new clinical method of producing a set of kappa-splints for splint therapy: treatment and prevention of various forms of pathological teeth abrasion in combination with dentition defects and dentition deformations, which will enable to prevent significant disorders in the dentition.

Materials and Methods: 36 patients aged 30-59 have been selected for the targeted research with a generalized form of pathological tooth wear in combination with dentition defects and dentition deformations.

Results: After studying the movements of conventional hinge axis in articulate heads of TMJ with the help of condylograph «Cadiax Compact», some asynchronous, asymmetrical bias of articulate heads during the movements of the mandible were revealed in patients with pathological tooth wear in combination with dentitiondefects and dentition deformations. While examining, the patients complained about the aesthetic defects due to the abrasion of teeth and the change of their colour, the discomfort while closing, chewing and phonetic disorders. In the clinical picture of these patients, the typical symptoms of TMJ dysfunction can be singled out, such as pain and crunch in joints, fatigue of chewing muscles and pain in the muscles, the displacement of the mandible to the side during vertical movements, a feeling of fullness in the ears, headaches and bruxism. Dentition deformations were presented as a violation of the occlusal curve. The results indicate on the presence of functional TMJ disorders and masticatory muscles dysfunction in pathological teeth abrasion in combination with dentition defects.

So, in most cases, temporary prosthesis structures and occlusal splints can be applied to normalize occlusive correlations at the dysfunction of TMJ and masticatory muscles. Gradual lifting of occlusion has been done due to a set of kappa-splints in terms of 14 days, 1 month and 3 months from 1.0 to 5.0 mm to the full restoration of occlusal height, depending on the severity of pathological teeth abrasion. It is the gradual application of a kappa-splints’ set which allows prevention of further tooth wear; it doesn’t influence the periodontium of teeth; it’s aesthetic and does not violate the pronunciation of sounds. The material, which a kappa-splints set is made of, provides better fixation and bite separation with optimal thickness throughout the dentition, which allows the lower jaw to take a position that helps to restore the functional balance of the entire dentition.

Conclusions:

1. According to the results of the research it has been established that the orthopedic treatment with the help of occlusive splints at the preparatory stage for the patients with occlusive disorders at pathological dental hard tissues abrasion in combination with dentition defects, periodontium tissue disease and dentition deformations are urgent for the normalization of occlusive correlations of the jaws.

2. After studying the movements of conventional hinge axis in articulate heads of TMJ with the help of condylograph «Cadiax Compact» and eliminating the symptoms of stress in masticatory muscles of the patients with occlusive disorders at pathological dental hard tissues abrasion, it is the gradual application of a kappa-splints set, made of hard transparent plates of Ercodent Ercodur material (Germany) with a thickness of 1.0 to 5.0 mm, which allows prevention of further tooth wear, normalization of occlusive correlations of the jaws, separating a bite with optimum thickness throughout the dentition, thus the lower jaw takes a position at which the state of functional equilibrium of the entire dentition is restored.


Keywords


pathological tooth wear; articulation system «Cadiax Compact»; TMJ dysfunction; dentition deformations; condylography; kappa-splints; splint therapy

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21802/gmj.2017.1.6

Copyright (c) 2017 Svitlana Petrishin, Z Ozhohan

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