Acute Appendicitis: Approaches to Complex Surgical Treatment in Accordance with the Principles of Multimodal Surgical Strategy (Fast-Track Surgery)

Adrian Kvit, Olexiy Kushniruk

Abstract


The objective of the research was to develop approaches to complex surgical treatment of patients with acute appendicitis taking into consideration the type of surgical approach, perioperative antibiotic therapy, adequate pain relief, duration of inpatient treatment.

         Materials and methods. The analysis of complex surgical treatment of the group of patients (31) with acute appendicitis, treated in the surgical departments of Lviv Emergency Hospital during 2017 was performed. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 77 years. There were 13 (41.9%) males and 18 (58.1%) females. Duration of hospital stay from the moment of hospitalization varied from 2 to 13 days. The level of pain sensation in patients was assessed on a 10-point visual analog scale of pain 6, 12 and 24 hours after surgery (with four-step stratification of the received data - absent (0-2), weak (3-4), moderate (5-8), strong (9-10 points). All the patients were divided into two groups using blind envelope technique: Group A included 18 patients, who underwent conventional appendectomy, and Group B comprised 13 patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy with the transition to laparoscopic appendectomy if the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was confirmed, or laparoscopic appendectomy was initially performed. The analysis of treatment efficacy was performed taking into account the dynamics of pain relief and the duration of inpatient treatment.

         Results and discussion. As a result of the conducted research it was stated that among all the patients examined, catarrhal acute appendicitis was found in 1 (3.2%) case, acute phlegmonous appendicitis was detected in 20 (64.5%) cases, acute gangrenous appendicitis was seen in 7 (22.6%) cases, acute gangrenous appendicitis with perforation and local peritonitis was diagnosed in 3 (9.7%) cases. Conventional appendectomy was performed in 18 cases; laparoscopic appendectomy was used in 13 cases. All the patients received anti-bacterial treatment in the early perioperative period. According to the prospective analysis, pain syndrome at the site of postoperative wounds was found to be present in patients of both groups. The intensity of pain syndrome was significantly lower in patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. The analysis of treating patients with acute appendicitis allows confirming that the introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy into the complex of surgical treatment of patients with acute appendicitis can significantly reduce the body’s response to stress from surgical trauma and pain, speed up recovery due to early activation of the patient and maximally reduce the duration of hospital stay, which definitely corresponds to the modern principles of fast-track surgery.

         Conclusions. The use of laparoscopic appendectomy makes it possible to significantly reduce the body’s response to stress from pain and surgical trauma and is an important part of the formation of the patient’s general condition. Complex surgical treatment of patients with acute appendicitis using non-invasive techniques allows shortening the duration of hospital stay (4.62 ± 0.77 days) and reducing the period of disablement. The method of minimally invasive surgical interventions can be considered a “gold standard” for providing medical care to the patients with urgent surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity, which provides an optimal approach to surgical treatment.


Keywords


acute appendicitis; antibacterial therapy; duration of inpatient treatment; laparoscopy

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21802/gmj.2018.2.10

Copyright (c) 2018 Adrian Kvit, Olexiy Kushniruk

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