Role of Changes in Ca and Mg Concentrations in the Development of Heart Rate Turbulence in People with Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Events According to the SCORE Charts
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Keywords

sudden cardiac death
ventricular extrasystole
calcium
magnesium

Abstract

The objective of the research was to determine the correlation between the occurrence and progression of ventricular arrhythmias as well as the increase in heart rate turbulence in patients at a high and very high cardiovascular risk according to the SCORE charts and serum levels of calcium and magnesium.            Materials and methods. 603 patients were examined to determine the role of heart rate variability in the cardiovascular continuum; 319 patients were examined to study the role of heart rate turbulence in the formation and progression of sudden death in the cardiovascular continuum based on the Holter monitoring. All patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 included patients with coronary heart disease without concomitant risk factors such as smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome; Group 2 consisted of patients smoking tobacco for more than 2 years; Group 3 included patients with metabolic syndrome without existing coronary heart disease or arterial hypertension; Group 4 consisted of patients with metabolic syndrome and arterial hypertension. The control group included 149 people. In patients with ventricular extrasystoles of different degrees according to V. Lown’s and M. Wolf’s scale the phenomenon of heart rate turbulence was observed and serum levels of calcium and magnesium were determined.            Results. In patients at a very high total cardiovascular risk according to the SCORE charts a significant decrease in serum levels of calcium ions and significantly higher serum levels of magnesium were observed. So, we can say that smokers who have been smoking tobacco for more than 5 years have a predisposition to hypocalcaemia and hypermagnesemia. In individuals at a high cardiovascular risk, there is a tendency for hypocalcaemia.            Conclusions. Electrolyte imbalance (Ca, Mg) in patients with past myocardial infarction, risk factors for cardiovascular events and concomitant phenomenon of heart rate turbulence plays an important, but not fundamental role in the occurrence of electrical instability of the myocardium  with the transition to reverse or not reverse ventricular fibrillation.
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