Impact of Physical Activity on Oxidative Disbalance in Children with Type 1 Diabtes
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Keywords

type 1 DM
children
physical activity
lipid peroxidation
antioxidant protection

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is closely associated with the development of oxidative stress (OS), which is an important pathogenetic factor of negative effects of the disease, the impact of physical activity on the formation of OS in children remains uncertain. The objective of the work was to study lipid parameters and antioxidant defense in type 1 DM in children with different levels of physical activity. Materials and methods. A group of 98 children, between the ages of 7 and 18, diagnosed with diabetes type 1 was examined to study the status of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism, indices of protein oxidation, (proteins carbonyls - CP) and lipid peroxidation (diene conjugates - DC), antioxidant defense (glutathione peroxidase - GPO, superoxide dismutase - SOD, total antioxidant activity - TAA). The level of physical activity (PA) was investigated using an adapted, modified questionnaire. Results and discussion. Children with type 1 DM showed signs of improving CP ((0.98±0.04) U/ml vs. (0.87±0.05) U/ml in control group, p<0.05) and reduction of DC level ((5.89±0.44) mmol/l vs of (11.3±3.6) mmol/l in control group, p<0.05). Condition AOP (antioxidant protection) was characterized by a moderate increase in GPO rate ((10.95±0.35) mkmol/min/ml compared to control group (10.18±0.31) mkmol/min/ml, p <0.05), along with a decrease in SOD ((1.25±0.03 U/min/ml) versus (1.48±0.02 U/min/ml in control group, p<0.05) on the background of preservation TAA ((0.11±0.10) mmol/L). An increase in HbA1c was accompanied by intensification of lipid oxidation activation processes AOP. With the growth PA level, the multidirectional changes of peroxidation processes were observed, which were largely dependent on the state of metabolic disease compensation. Conclusions. Children with type 1 DM had oxidative imbalance in the form of reduced lipid peroxidation and increased protein oxidation and also discoordination of AOP with multidirectional changes of its individual parts - reduction of SOD level and increased GPO level. Effect of PA growth in children with type 1 DM depended on the metabolic compensation: at its optimal level inhibition of processes of peroxidation took place with improvement of AOP, on the contrary, with deterioration of level of glycemic control activation of lipid peroxidation and discoordination of individual units AOP were observed. Recommendations for increasing PA in children with type 1 DM in a state of metabolic decompensation should be limited in view of possible adverse effects, enhance of oxidative stress and increased risk of developing diabetic complications. 
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