Ultrasound Characteristics of the Nutcracker Syndrome

  • Ihor Kobza Dr.
  • Irena Nesterenko
  • Volodymyr Nesterenko
Keywords: nutcracker syndrome, color Doppler ultrasonography, critical stenosis of the left renal vein, left renal vein transposition


The article presents the results of color Doppler ultrasonography of the left renal vein and gonadal vein with the determination of the peak systolic velocity of blood flow and abnormal blood reflux in patients with left-sided varicocele. The objective of the research was to compare preoperative ultrasound characteristics of the left renal vein, left gonadal vein, peak systolic velocity of blood flow and the presence of abnormal blood reflux, the formation of ultrasound criteria for the selection of patients for surgical correction of phlebohypertension. Results. Ultrasound signs of aorta mesenteric compression were absent in 24 (24.5%) patients; the signs of aorta mesenteric compression without critical left renal vein stenosis were observed in 64 (65.3%) patients; critical stenosis of the left renal vein was diagnosed in 10 (10.2 %) patients. The patients with critical stenosis of the left renal vein underwent left renal vein transposition. Conclusions. Ivanissevich surgery with prognostically low risk of relapse is recommended for the patients with left-sided varicocele without any signs of aorta mesenteric compression. Patients with the signs of aorta mesenteric compression require clear determination of the degree of left renal vein stenosis. We consider the transposition of the left renal vein to be indicated in case of critical stenosis when the correlation of the diameters of the distal and proximal segments of the left renal vein is ≥ 3 and the ratio of peak systolic velocities in the proximal and distal segments is ≥ 6. Thus, the diagnosis of phleborenohypertension in the patients with varicocele by means of color Doppler ultrasonography with the determination of blood flow velocity indicators in the left renal vein circulation and the determination of the critical stenosis of the left renal vein is decisive in choosing the surgical method of treatment. This provides an opportunity to evaluate the cause of varicocele occurrence and choose the optimal method of surgical treatment.  


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